IPv4 & IPv6


Fitur
IPv4: Jumlah alamat menggunakan 32 bit sehingga jumlah alamat unik yang didukung terbatas 4.294.967.296 atau di atas 4 miliar alamat IP saja. NAT mampu untuk sekadar memperlambat habisnya jumlah alamat IPv4, namun pada dasarnya IPv4 hanya menggunakan 32 bit sehingga tidak dapat mengimbangi laju pertumbuhan internet dunia.

IPv6: Menggunakan 128 bit untuk mendukung 3.4 x 10^38 alamat IP yang unik. Jumlah yang masif ini lebih dari cukup untuk menyelesaikan masalah keterbatasan jumlah alamat pada IPv4 secara permanen.

Routing
IPv4: Performa routing menurun seiring dengan membesarnya ukuran tabel routing. Penyebabnya pemeriksaan header MTU di setiap router dan hop switch.

IPv6: Dengan proses routing yang jauh lebih efisien dari pendahulunya, IPv6 memiliki kemampuan untuk mengelola tabel routing yang besar.

Mobilitas
IPv4: Dukungan terhadap mobilitas yang terbatas oleh kemampuan roaming saat beralih dari satu jaringan ke jaringan lain.

IPv6: Memenuhi kebutuhan mobilitas tinggi melalui roaming dari satu jaringan ke jaringan lain dengan tetap terjaganya kelangsungan sambungan. Fitur ini mendukung perkembangan aplikasi-aplikasi.

Keamanan
IPv4: Meski umum digunakan dalam mengamankan jaringan IPv4, header IPsec merupakan fitur tambahan pilihan pada standar IPv4.

IPv6: IPsec dikembangkan sejalan dengan IPv6. Header IPsec menjadi fitur wajib dalam standar implementasi IPv6.

Ukuran header
IPv4: Ukuran header dasar 20 oktet ditambah ukuran header options yang dapat bervariasi.

IPv6: Ukuran header tetap 40 oktet. Sejumlah header pada IPv4 seperti Identification, Flags, Fragment offset, Header Checksum dan Padding telah dimodifikasi.

Header checksum
IPv4: Terdapat header checksum yang diperiksa oleh setiap switch (perangkat lapis ke 3), sehingga menambah delay.

IPv6: Proses checksum tidak dilakukan di tingkat header, melainkan secara end-to-end. Header IPsec telah menjamin keamanan yang memadai

Fragmentasi
IPv4: Dilakukan di setiap hop yang melambatkan performa router. Proses menjadi lebih lama lagi apabila ukuran paket data melampaui Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) paket dipecah-pecah sebelum disatukan kembali di tempat tujuan.

IPv6: Hanya dilakukan oleh host yang mengirimkan paket data. Di samping itu, terdapat fitur MTU discovery yang menentukan fragmentasi yang lebih tepat menyesuaikan dengan nilai MTU terkecil yang terdapat dalam sebuah jaringan dari ujung ke ujung.

Configuration
IPv4: Ketika sebuah host terhubung ke sebuah jaringan, konfigurasi dilakukan secara manual.

IPv6: Memiliki fitur stateless auto configuration dimana ketika sebuah host terhubung ke sebuah jaringan, konfigurasi dilakukan secara otomatis.

Kualitas Layanan
IPv4: Memakai mekanisme best effort untuk tanpa membedakan kebutuhan.

IPv6: Memakai mekanisme best level of effort yang memastikan kualitas layanan. Header traffic class menentukan prioritas pengiriman paket data berdasarkan kebutuhan akan kecepatan tinggi atau tingkat latency tinggi.



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